POPULATION

Contents

POPULATION.. 1

WHAT IS ‘POPULATION’:- 1

What is Census?. 1

How the Census is conducted?. 1

Who collect the Information?. 2

HIGHLIGHTS OF 2011 CENSUS: 2

Population size: 2

Geographic Distribution: 2

Rate of Population Growth: 3

Literacy: 3

Sex Ratio of Population: 4

Child Sex Ratio: 4

COMMON CONCEPTS AND INDICATORS: 4

Birth Rate: 4

Death Rate: 4

Growth Rate: 5

Fertility Rate: 5

Mortality Rates: 5

Life expectancy: 6

Sex ratio: 6

Age structure: 6

POPULATION OF INDIA 2016: 6

Current Population of India: 7

POPULATION CENSUS 2011: 8

Analysis of sex ratio data in census 2011: 10

Top Five States/Union Territories with High Sex Ratios (females per 1000 males): 10

States/ Union Territories with Low Sex Ratios (females per 1000 males): 10

Laws related to prevent female infanticide: 11

GOVERNMENT SCHEMES TO SAVE GIRL CHILD: 11

Beti Bachao Beti Padhao Yojana : 11

The objectives of the scheme are: 11

Sukanya Samridhi Yojana: 12

NATIONAL POPULATION POLICY: 13

STEPS/MEASURES TO CONTROL THE POPULATION GROWTH OF INDIA BY. 14

THE GOVERNMENT OF INDIA: 14

On-going interventions: 14

New Interventions under Family Planning Programme: 15

THE FUNDS RELEASED UNDER THESE PROGRAMMES/SCHEMES ARE GIVEN BELOW:- 17

Statement of SPIP Approval under the Activity Family Planning Services under NHM for the F.Y 2013-14 to 2015-16. 17

Rs. in lakhs. 17

Socio Economic and Caste Census 2011: 19

Objectives: 20

Some of the findings of the SECC are as under: 20

Key Findings: 21

 


WHAT IS ‘POPULATION’:-

Population is the entire pool from which a statistical sample is drawn. The information obtained from the sample allows statisticians to develop hypotheses about the larger population. Researchers gather information from a sample because of the difficulty of studying the entire population.

What is Census?

·       The Indian Census is the most credible source of information on Demography (Population characteristics), Economic Activity, Literacy & Education, Housing & Household Amenities, Urbanization, Fertility and Mortality, Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, Language, Religion, Migration, Disability and many other socio-cultural and demographic data since 1872.

·       Census 2011 was the 15th National Census of the country. This is the only source of primary data at village, town and ward level. It provides valuable information for planning and formulation of polices for Central & State Governments and is widely used by National & International agencies, scholars, business people, industrialists, and many more.

·       The delimitation/reservation of Constituencies

Parliamentary/Assembly/Panchayats and other Local Bodies is also done on the basis of the demographic data thrown up by the Census.

·       Census is the basis for reviewing the country's progress in the past decade, monitoring the on-going schemes of the Government and most importantly, plan for the future. The Census is a statutory exercise conducted under the provisions of the Census Act 1948 and Rules made there under.

How the Census is conducted?

·         The Census process involves visiting each and every household and gathering particular by asking questions and filling up Census Forms. The information collected about individuals is kept absolutely confidential. In fact this information is not accessible even to Courts of law. After the field work is over the forms are transported to data processing centres located at 15 cities across the country.

 

·         The data processing is done using sophisticated software called Intelligent Character Recognition Software (ICR). This technology was pioneered by India in Census 2001 has become the benchmark for Censuses all around the globe. This involves the scanning of the Census Forms at high speed and extracting the data automatically using computer software. This revolutionary technology has enabled the processing of the voluminous data in a very short time and saving a huge amount of manual labour and cost.

 Who collect the Information?

·      Government servants duly appointed as Enumerators visit each and every house and collect the information required. They carry an Identity Card as well as an Appointment Letter.

HIGHLIGHTS OF 2011 CENSUS:

Population size:

·       According to the Census, India's total population in 2011 was 1.21 billion, up from 1.03 billion in 2001, thus adding 181 million people in one decade.

·       However, the 2001-2011 decadal growth rate of 17.6 %, compared to 21.5 recorded during 1991-2001, suggests slowing down of growth. India is now expected to become the most populous country of the world by 2030 overtaking China sooner than earlier expected. www.iasscore.in Notes 3 GS SCORE

·       India's population size is expected to stabilize at 1.8 billion around 2041.

Geographic Distribution:

·         The state of Uttar Pradesh with 199.6 million people is India's most populous state accounting for 16.5% of country's population. Bihar (103.8) and Maharashtra (112.4) are other two states with more than 100 million people. Other large states are West Bengal with 91, Andhra Pradesh with 85, Madhya Pradesh with 73, and Tamil Nadu with 72 million people.

·         Nearly 42.4% of Indians now live in formerly undivided Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan; a proportion that has increased from 40% in 1991.

·         Conversely, the proportion of Indians living in the four southern states of Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh has decreased from 22.5% in 1991 to 20.8% in 2011, causing concerns about their representation in parliamentary democracy.

Rate of Population Growth:

·      Among the major states, Bihar with 25.1% growth rate during 2001-2011 is the fastest growing state. Decadal Growth rates have exceeded 20% in all the core north India states - Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh (including Jharkhand and Chattisgarh).

·      Kerala's growth rate during 2001-2011 of 4.9% is indicative of the state reaching stationary population in the next 10-20 years.

·      Growth rate around 11-13% is reported by Punjab, Andhra Pradesh, and West Bengal and around 15-16% by Karnataka, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. Southern states are the harbinger of population stabilization.

Literacy:

·      India has witnessed remarkable progress in spread of literacy. Compared to barely 18 per cent of India's population recorded as literate in the first Census after Independence, according to the 2011 Census, that proportion has gone up to 74 per cent.

·      The achievement among males has been from 27 to 82 percent in the 60 years. From less than one in 10 women counted as literate in 1951, today two out of three women are enumerated as literate.

·      Nationally, the gender gap in spread of literacy began to narrow first in1991 and the pace has accelerated. However, there are large state variations in the gender gap with Rajasthan reporting nearly 28 percentage point gap and other core North Indian states like Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Chattisgarh and Jharkhand reporting a gap between male and female literacy rate of more than 20 percentage points.

·      Compared to 2001, in 2011 male literacy rate increased by 6 percentage points but female literacy increased by nearly 12 percentage points, which is viewed as a remarkable achievement.

Sex Ratio of Population:

·      Female to male sex ratio of population has began to improve - from 927 in 1991 to 933 in 2001 to 940 in 2011.

·      The female to male sex ratio of population historically noted in the contiguous area of Punjab, Haryana, Chandigarh and Delhi, has improved between 2001 and 2011, but it is still below 900 women per 1000 men.

·      On the other hand, sex ratio close to unity is recorded in the southern states of Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh.

Child Sex Ratio:

·      Since 1981 Indian Censuses have made available data on population in the age group 0-6 by sex, as a byproduct of information on literacy rates which are calculated for 7+ population, enabling calculation of sex ratio of children in the age group 0-6. (Typically, age data are generated in five year age groups and thus most populations would provide data on children in the age group 0-4 and not 0-6.)

·      The child sex ratio has steadily declined from 976 in 1961 to 927 in 2001 and further to 914 in 2011.

COMMON CONCEPTS AND INDICATORS:

Birth Rate:

·      Birth rate is the total number of live births in a particular area (an entire country, a state, a district or other territorial unit) during a specified period (usually a year) divided by the total population of that area in thousands.

·      In other words, the birth rate is the number of live births per 1000 population.

Death Rate:

·      The death rate is a similar statistic, expressed as the number of deaths in a given area during a given time per 1000 population.


Growth Rate:

·      The rate of natural increase or the growth rate of population refers to the difference between the birth rate and the death rate. When this difference is zero (or, in practice, very small) then the population has 'stabilized', or has reached the 'replacement level', which is the rate of growth required for new generations to replace the older ones that are dying out.

·      Sometimes, societies can experience a negative growth rate - that is, their fertility levels are below the replacement rate. This is true of many countries and regions in the world today, such as Japan, Russia, Italy and Eastern Europe.

·      On the other hand, some societies experience very high growth rates, particularly when they are going through the demographic transition described on the previous page.

Fertility Rate:

·       The fertility rate refers to the number of live births per 1000 women in the child-bearing age group, usually taken to be 15 to 49 years.

·      But like the other rates discussed above (the birth and death rates) this is a 'crude' rate- it is a rough average for an entire population and does not take account of the differences across age-groups. Differences across age groups can sometimes be very significant in affecting the meaning of indicators. That is why demographers also calculate age-specific rates.

·      The total fertility rate refers to the total number of live births that a hypothetical woman would have if she lived through the reproductive age group and had the average number of babies in each segment of this age group as determined by the age-specific fertility rates for that area. Another way of expressing this is that the total fertility rate is the 'the average number of births to a cohort of women up to the end of the reproductive age period (estimated on the basis of the age-specific rates observed during a given period).

Mortality Rates:

·      The infant mortality rate is the number of deaths of babies before the age of one year per 1000 live births.

·      Likewise, the maternal mortality rate is the number of women who die in child birth per 1000 live births.

·      High rates of infant and maternal mortality are an unambiguous indicator of backwardness and poverty; development is accompanied by sharp falls in these rates as medical facilities and levels of education, awareness and prosperity increase.

Life expectancy:

·      This refers to the estimated number of years that an average person is expected to survive. It is calculated on the basis of data on age-specific death rates in a given area over a period of time.

Sex ratio:

·      The sex ratio refers to the number of females per 1000 males in a given area at a specified time period.

Age structure:

·      The age structure of the population refers to the proportion of persons indifferent age groups relative to the total population.

·      The age structure changes in response to changes in levels of development and the average life expectancy. Initially, poor medical facilities, prevalence of disease and other factors make for a relatively short life span. Moreover, high infant and maternal mortality rates also have an impact on the age structure. With development, quality of life improves and with it the life expectancy also improves. This changes the age structure: relatively smaller proportions of the population are found in the younger age groups and larger proportions in the older age groups. This is also refered to as the aging of the population

POPULATION OF INDIA 2016:

Current Population of India in 2016

1,349,443,741 (1.34 billion) As of December 27, 2016

Total Male Population in India

696,852,747 (696 million)

Total No of Females in India

652,590,993 (652 million)

Sex Ratio

943 females per 1,000 males

Age structure

0 to 25 years

50% of India's current population

Currently, there are about 51 births in India in a minute.

Current Population of India:

1.  India, with 1,349,443,741 (1.34 billion) people is the second most populous country in the world, while China is on the top with over 1,415,489,506 (1.41 billion) people.

2.  The figures show that India represents almost 17.85% of the world's population, which means one out of six people on this planet live in India. Although, the crown of the world's most populous country is on China's head for decades, India is all set to take the numero uno position by 2030. With the population growth rate at 1.2%, India is predicted to have more than 1.53 billion people by the end of 2030.

3.  More than 50% of India's current population is below the age of 25 and over 65% below the age of 35. About 72.2% of the population lives in some 638,000 villages and the rest 27.8% in about 5,480 towns and urban agglomerations. The birth rate (child births per 1,000 people per year) is 22.22 births/1,000 population (2009 est.) while death rate (deaths per 1000 individuals per year) is 6.4 deaths/1,000 population.

4.  Fertility rate is 2.72 children born/woman (NFHS-3, 2008) and Infant mortality rate is 30.15 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 estimated). India has the largest illiterate population in the world. The literacy rate of India as per 2011 Population Census is 74.04%, with male literacy rate at 82.14% and female at 65.46%. Kerala has the highest literacy rate at 93.9%, Lakshadweep (92.3%) is on the second position and Mizoram (91.6%) is on third.

 

5.  Every year, India adds more people than any other nation in the world, and in fact the individual population of some of its states is equal to the total population of many countries. For example, Population of Uttar Pradesh (state in India) almost equals to the population of Brazil. It, as per 2001 Population Census of India, has 190 million people and the growth rate is 16.16%. The population of the second most populous state Maharashtra, which has a growth rate of 9.42%, is equal to that of Mexico's population.

6.  Bihar, with 8.07%, is the third most populous state in India and its population is more than Germany's. West Bengal with 7.79% growth rate, Andhra Pradesh (7.41%) and Tamil Nadu (6.07%) are at fourth, fifth and sixth positions respectively. The sex ratio of India stands at 940. Kerala with 1058 females per 1000 males is the state with the highest female sex ratio. Pondicherry (1001) is second, while Chhatisgarh (990) and Tamil Nadu (986) are at third and fourth places respectively. Haryana with 861 has the lowest female sex ratio.

POPULATION CENSUS 2011:

Rank

State or union territory

Population

Density (per km˛)

Sex ratio

01

Uttar Pradesh

199,581,477

828

908

02

Maharashtra

121,362,092

365

946

03

Bihar

116,725,698

1102

916

04

West Bengal

91,347,736

1029

947

05

Andhra Pradesh

84,665,533

308

992

06

Madhya Pradesh

72,597,565

236

930

07

Tamil Nadu

77,881,463

555

995

08

Rajasthan

74,791,568

201

926

09

Karnataka

61,130,704

319

968

10

Gujarat

60,383,628

308

918

11

Odisha

41,947,358

269

978

12

Kerala

33,387,677

859

1,084

13

Telangana

35,193,978

307/km2 (800/sq mi)

-

14

Jharkhand

32,966,238

414

947

15

Assam

31,169,272

397

954

16

Punjab

27,704,236

550

893

17

Haryana

25,353,081

573

903

18

Chhattisgarh

25,540,196

189

991

19

Jammu and Kashmir

12,548,926

56

883

20

Uttarakhand

10,116,752

189

963

21

Himachal Pradesh

7,123,184

123

974

22

Tripura

3,671,032

350

961

23

Meghalaya

2,964,007

132

986

24

Manipur

2,721,756

122

987

25

Nagaland

1,980,602

119

931

26

Goa

1,457,723

394

968

27

Arunachal Pradesh

1,382,611

17

920

28

Mizoram

1,091,014

52

975

29

Sikkim

607,688

86

889

UT1

Delhi

18,686,902

9,340

866

UT2

Puducherry

1,244,464

2,598

1,038

UT3

Chandigarh

1,054,686

9,252

818

UT4

Andaman and Nicobar Islands

379,944

46

878

UT5

Dadra and Nagar Haveli

342,853

698

775

UT6

Daman and Diu

242,911

2,169

618

UT7

Lakshadweep

64,429

2,013

946

Total

India

1,210,193,422

382

940

Analysis of sex ratio data in census 2011:

·       Internationally Sex ratio is defined as number of males per 100 females. According to United Nations, Sex ratio of world in 2015 is 101.70. It means that World has 101.70 males for each 100 females or 98.33 females for each 100 males.

·       Thirteen out of the 35 States and Union Territories have CSR lower than the national average of 918 girls per 1000 boys in 2011. The CSR ranged from a maximum of 972 in Arunachal Pradesh to a minimum of 834 in Haryana.

·       Jammu & Kashmir, Punjab, Haryana, NCT of Delhi, Chandigarh, Rajasthan, Uttarakhand, Gujarat and Maharashtra have recorded lower than 900 girls per 1,000 boys. Overall Sex ratio increased from 933 to 943 because greater natural longevity of women and improvements in health care over the years with other factors also.

·       At all India Level, Sex Ratio has shown an increase in both rural and urban areas: Rural Areas - From 945 in 2001 to 947 in 2011, Urban Areas - From 900 in 2001 to 926 in 2011. Child Sex Ratio has declined in both Rural and Urban areas. This decline in Rural India is more than three times as compared to drop in Urban India in 2011 - a matter of great concern. Only three major States, Gujarat, Bihar and Jammu & Kashmir have shown a decline in the Sex Ratio in Census 2011.

Top Five States/Union Territories with High Sex Ratios (females per 1000 males):

1. Kerala - 1,084,

2. Pondicherry - 1,038,

3. Tamil Nadu - 995,

4. Andhra Pradesh - 992,

5. Chhattisgarh - 991.

States/ Union Territories with Low Sex Ratios (females per 1000 males):

1.  Daman & Diu - 618,

2.  Dadra & Nagar Haveli - 775,

3.  Chandigarh - 818,

4.  NCT of Delhi - 866,

5.  A & N Islands – 878

Laws related to prevent female infanticide:

 Sex selective abortions are illegal in India. The Pre-natal Diagnostic Techniques (Regulation and Prevention of Misuse) Act, 1994, was enacted and brought into operation from 1st January, 1996, in order to check female foeticide. Rules have also been framed under the Act. The Act prohibits determination and disclosure of the sex of foetus. It also prohibits any advertisements relating to pre-natal determination of sex and prescribes punishment for its contravention. The person who contravenes the provisions of this Act is punishable with imprisonment and fine.

GOVERNMENT SCHEMES TO SAVE GIRL CHILD:

Beti Bachao Beti Padhao Yojana :

·       To ensure survival, protection and empowerment of the girl child, Government has announced Beti Bachao Beti Padhao initiative, to be implemented through a national campaign and focussed multi sectoral action. The initial focus is on 100 selected districts with low CSR, covering all States and UTs.

·       This is a joint initiative of Ministry of Women and Child Development, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare and Ministry of Human Resource Development. Now 61 more districts have been added.

The objectives of the scheme are:

·       To prevent Gender biased sex selective elimination:

·       Focussed intervention targeting enforcement of all existing Legislations and Acts, especially to Strengthen the implementation of Pre-Conception & PreNatal Diagnostic Techniques (Prohibition of Sex Selection) Act, 1994 (PC&PNDT Act) with stringent punishments for violations of the law.

·       To ensure survival & protection of the girl child:

·       Article 21 of the Constitution defines "protection of life and liberty as a legitimate right of its citizens. The difference in mortality rates of girls and boys indicates the difference in access to various health care and nutrition services as well as the preferential care and treatment given to boys.

·       The access to various entitlements, changes in patriarchal mind-set etc. are to be addressed in order to ensure equal value, care for and survival of the infant and young girl child. Further implementation of various legislative provisions for the protection of the girl child and women has to be ensured to create a nurturing and safe environment for the girl child.

·       To ensure education & participation of the girl child: The access and availability of services and entitlements during the various phases of the life cycle of the Girl Child has a bearing on her development. Essential requirements related to Nutrition, Health Care, Education and Protection have to be fulfilled to enable every girl child to develop her full potential especially the right to quality early childhood cares, elementary and secondary education.

·       Right to Education (RTE) Act, 2010 provides children the right to free and compulsory education till completion of elementary education in a neighborhood school. Further, SarvaShikshaAbhiyan (SSA) is a flagship programme for achievement of universalisation of Elementary Education (UEE) in a time bound manner, as mandated by 86th amendment to the Constitution of India making free and compulsory Education to the Children of 6-14 years age group, a Fundamental Right. Denial of these entitlements is a violation of childrens rights, which will have a lasting lifelong negative impact. This will also adversely impact upon future human development.

Sukanya Samridhi Yojana:

·      As an integral part of the Beti Bachao, Beti Padhao scheme, a small deposit scheme for girl child, which would fetch an interest rate of 9.1 per cent and provide income tax rebate, has been introduced by the Union Government.

·      The Scheme, 'Sukanya Samridhi Account' can be opened at any time from the birth of a girl child till she attains the age of 10 years, with a minimum deposit of Rs 1000. A maximum of Rs 1.5 lakh can be deposited during the financial year. The account can be opened in any post office or authorised branches of commercial banks.

·      The scheme primarily ensures equitable share to a girl child in resources and savings of a family in which she is generally discriminated as against a male child.

·      The account will remain operative for 21 years from the date of opening of the account or marriage of the girl child after attaining 18 years of age. To meet the requirement of higher education expenses, partial withdrawal of 50 per cent of the balance would be allowed after the girl child has attended 18 years of age. Conclusion Several government laws and schemes have focused on curbing female infanticide and incentivizing

NATIONAL POPULATION POLICY:

As per the latest World Population Prospects released by United Nations (revision2015), the estimated  population of India   will   be    1419   million approximately whereas  China’s population will be approximately 1409 million, by 2022. In spite of the perceptible decline in Total Fertility Rate (TFR) from 3.6 in 1991 to 2.3 in 2013, India is yet to achieve replacement level of 2.1. Twenty four states/UTs have already achieved replacement level of TFR by 2013, while states like UP and Bihar with large population base still have TFR of 3.1 and 3.4 respectively. The other states like Jharkhand (TFR 2.7), Rajasthan (TFR 2.8), Madhya Pradesh (TFR 2.9), and Chhattisgarh (TFR 2.6) continue to have higher levels of fertility and contribute to the growth of population.

The National Population Policy 2000 is uniformly applicable to the whole country. In pursuance of this policy, Government has taken a number of measures under Family Planning Programme and as a result, Population Growth Rate in India has reduced substantially which is evident from the following:-        

·      The percentage decadal growth rate of the country has declined significantly from 21.5% for the period 1991-2001 to 17.7% during 2001-2011.

·      Total Fertility Rate (TFR) was 3.2 at the time when National Population Policy, 2000 was adopted and the same has declined to 2.3 as per Sample registration Survey (SRS) 2013 conducted by the Registrar General of India.

As the existing NPP-2000 is uniformly applicable to all irrespective of religions and communities etc., therefore no proposal is under consideration of the Government to formulate new uniform population policy. The steps taken by the Government under various measures/programme are given below:-

STEPS/MEASURES TO CONTROL THE POPULATION GROWTH OF INDIA BY

THE GOVERNMENT OF INDIA:

 On-going interventions:

·      More emphasis on Spacing methods like IUCD.

·      Availability of Fixed Day Static Services at all facilities.

·      A rational human resource development plan is in place for provision of IUCD, minilap and NSV to empower the facilities (DH, CHC, PHC, SHC) with at least one provider each for each of the services and Sub Centres with ANMs trained in IUD insertion.

·      Quality care in Family Planning services by establishing Quality Assurance Committees at state and   district levels. Improving contraceptives supply management up to peripheral facilities.

·      Demand generation activities in the form of display of posters, billboards and other audio and video materials in the various facilities.

·      National Family Planning Indemnity Scheme’ (NFPIS) under which clients are insured in the eventualities of deaths, complications and failures following sterilization and the providers/ accredited institutions are indemnified against litigations in those eventualities.

·      Compensation scheme for sterilization acceptors - under the scheme MoHFW provides compensation for loss of wages to the beneficiary and also to the service provider (& team) for conducting sterilisations. 

·      Increasing male participation and promotion of Non Scalpel Vasectomy.

·      Emphasis on Miniap Tubectomy services because of its logistical simplicity and requirement of only MBBS doctors and not post graduate gynecologists/surgeons.

·      Accreditation of more private/NGO facilities to increase the provider base for family planning services under PPP.

·      Strong political will and advocacy at the highest level, especially, in States with high fertility rates.

New Interventions under Family Planning Programme:

·         Scheme for Home delivery of contraceptives by ASHAs at doorstep of beneficiaries: The govt. has launched a scheme to utilize the services of ASHA to deliver contraceptives at the doorstep of beneficiaries. 

·         Scheme for ASHAs to ensure spacing in births: The scheme is operational from 16th May, 2012, under this scheme, services of ASHAs to be utilised for counselling newly married couples to ensure delay of 2 years in birth after marriage and couples with 1 child to have spacing of 3 years after the birth of 1stchild.  ASHAs are to be paid the following incentives under the scheme:- 

§  Rs. 500/- to ASHA for ensuring spacing of 2 years after marriage.

§  Rs. 500/- to ASHA for ensuring spacing of 3 years after the birth of 1st child.

§  Rs. 1000/- in case the couple opts for a permanent limiting method up to 2 children only. The scheme is being implemented in 18 States of the country (8 EAG, 8 NE Gujarat and Haryana).

·       Boost to spacing methods by introduction of new method PPIUCD (Post-Partum Intra Uterine Contraceptives Device.

·       Introduction of the new device   Cu IUCD 375, which is effective for 5 years. 

·       Emphasis on Postpartum Family Planning (PPFP) services with introduction of PPIUCD and promotion of minilap as the main mode of providing sterilisation in the form of post-partum sterilisation to capitalise on the huge cases coming in for institutional delivery under JSY. Assured delivery of family planning services for both IUCD and sterilisation.

·       Compensation for sterilisation acceptors has been enhanced for 11 High Focus States with high TFR.

·       Compensation scheme for PPIUCD under which the service provider as well as the ASHAs who escorts the clients to the health facility for facilitating the IUCD insertion are compensated.

·       Scheme for provision of pregnancy testing kits at the sub-centres as well as in the drug kit of the ASHAs for use in the communities to facilitate the early detection and decision making for the outcome of pregnancy.

·       RMNCH Counselors (Reproductive Maternal New Born and Child Health) availability at the high case facilities to ensure counselling of the clients visiting the facilities.

·       Celebration of World Population Day 11th July & Fortnight: The event is observed over a month long period, split into fortnight of mobilization/sensitization followed by a fortnight of assured family planning service delivery and has been made a mandatory activity from 2012-13 and starts from 27th June each year.

·       FP 2020- Family Planning Division is working on the national and state wise action plans so as to achieve FP 2020 goals. The key commitments of FP 2020 are as under:

§  Increasing financial commitment on Family Planning whereby India commits an allocation of 2 billion USD from 2012 to 2020.

§  Ensuring access to family planning services to 48 million (4.8 crore) additional women by 2020 (40% of the total FP 2020 goal).

§  Sustaining the coverage of 100 million (10 crore) women currently using contraceptives.

·         Reducing the unmet need by an improved access to voluntary family planning services, supplies and information.In addition to above, Jansankhya Sthirata Kosh/National Population Stabilization Fund has adopted the following strategies as a population control measure:-

 

 


THE FUNDS RELEASED UNDER THESE PROGRAMMES/SCHEMES ARE GIVEN BELOW:-

 

Statement of SPIP Approval under the Activity Family Planning Services under NHM for the F.Y 2013-14 to 2015-16

 

Rs. in lakhs

 

S. No.

State

2013-14

2014-15

2015-16

SPIP Approval

SPIP Approval

SPIP Approval

A. High Focus States

1

Bihar

7,776.27

5,936.19

10,892.01

2

Chhattisgarh

2,207.80

2,221.53

1,309.51

3

Himachal Pradesh

414.76

480.00

464.55

4

Jammu & Kashmir

205.99

384.97

358.13

5

Jharkhand

2,440.05

3,662.94

4,214.20

6

Madhya Pradesh

8,417.96

6,460.46

9,629.27

7

Orissa

1,777.62

1,956.81

3,301.23

8

Rajasthan

5,252.23

7,417.61

9,242.44

9

Uttar Pradesh

6,629.40

7,815.66

11,774.84

10

Uttarakhand

378.00

539.31

732.14

Sub Total

35,500.08

36,875.48

51,918.31

B. NE States

11

Arunachal Pradesh

107.27

99.68

85.74

12

Assam

1,665.74

1,680.41

2,231.97

13

Manipur

90.67

65.76

73.32

14

Meghalaya

74.99

67.90

84.90

15

Mizoram

61.76

79.67

-

16

Nagaland

157.99

94.18

90.00

17

Sikkim

33.32

22.32

11.71

18

Tripura

171.42

148.56

139.82

Sub Total

2,363.16

2,258.48

2,717.46

C.Non-High Focus States

19

Andhra Pradesh

5,564.16

2,902.31

2,872.13

20

Goa

27.75

29.39

27.66

21

Gujarat

2,744.97

4,390.48

5,051.60

22

Haryana

867.82

825.00

1,494.15

23

Karnataka

2,861.40

2,680.00

2,527.80

24

Kerala

608.67

468.34

467.60

25

Maharashtra

4,172.93

3,979.91

4,496.69

26

Punjab

801.09

773.17

743.22

27

Tamil Nadu

2,516.21

1,921.09

2,800.77

28

Telangana

2,139.63

2,120.22

29

West Bengal

3,445.63

3,047.04

1,651.71

Sub Total

23,610.63

23,156.36

24,253.55

D.Small States/UTs

30

Andaman and Nicobar Islands

27.91

31.50

34.45

31

Chandigarh

14.60

27.06

25.14

32

Dadra and Nagar Haveli

17.39

44.55

31.24

33

Daman and Diu

8.49

7.91

10.10

34

Delhi

368.67

364.69

411.79

35

Lakshadweep

3.81

2.64

1.99

36

Puducherry

84.62

94.97

49.37

Sub Total

525.49

573.32

564.08

Grand Total

61,999.35

62,863.64

79,453.40

 


Socio Economic and Caste Census 2011:

·         Economic and Caste Census (SECC) in June 2011 through a comprehensive door to door enumeration across the country. This is the first time such a comprehensive exercise has been carried out for both rural and urban India. It has generated information on a large number of social and economic indicators relating to households across the country.

·         SECC 2011 is also first paperless census in India conducted on hand-held electronic devices by the government in 640 districts. The rural development ministry has taken a decision to use the SECC data in all its programmers such as MGNREGA, National Food Security Act etc.

·         SECC 2011 data will also be used to identify beneficiary and expand the direct benefit transfer scheme as part of its plans to build upon the JAM (Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana-AadhaarMobile number portability) trinity.

·         The feeling was that the current definition of poverty — which was derived by identifying a basket of essential goods and services and marking the point in India’s income distribution where that basket could be purchased by an individual — was missing too much.

·         For one, the numbers seemed absurdly low — set at Rs.816 per person per month in rural areas and Rs.1,000 in urban areas by the Planning Commission by updating the Tendulkar methodology, the numbers amounted to a daily expenditure of around Rs.30, which caused public indignation.

·         A new committee was formed which drew a new line, but the Rangarajan methodology too wound up at a poverty line not very different from the Tendulkar line.  So, a broader and more dynamic definition of poverty seemed important.

·         Also, while the general census was about individuals, the SECC was based on households and this gives a more accurate picture of the economic status of families.

 


Objectives:

·         To enable households to be ranked based on their Socio- Economic status, so that State Governments can then prepare a list of families living below the poverty line.

·         To make available authentic information that will enable caste-wise population enumeration of the country, and education status of various castes and sections of the population. It is relevant to note that the regular Population Census is carried out under Census Act, 1948.

·         According to this Act, Government must keep individual's personal information confidential. Besides aim of regular Population Census is to provide overview, it is not concerned with any particular individual / household. Thus, personal data given in Population Census is confidential. On the contrary all the personal information given in the Socio Economic Caste Census (SECC) is open for use by Government departments to grant and/ or restrict benefits to households. This required the right of verification of socio economic profile

 Some of the findings of the SECC are as under:

·         There are a total number of 24.39 crore households in India, of which 17.91 crore live in villages. Of these, 10.69 crore households are considered as deprived. The economic status of a household was computed through seven indicators of deprivation covering aspects of landlessness, housing, source of income, disability etc.

·         49% of the households can be considered poor in the sense of facing some deprivation. These households show signs of poverty even though depth of poverty may be not enough to categorise them as poor. These deprivations range from lack housing facility and education, to absence of any male earning member, to households depending mainly on manual labour etc. This finding points to the need to have a comprehensive social security structure.

·         These extremely low income numbers follow from the nature of employment that most of rural India is engaged in. The vast majority – over 90% - of rural India, does not have salaried jobs.

·         Working in anything other than agriculture will be a tough ask, given the level of education – fewer than 10 per cent make it to higher secondary or above and just 3.41 per cent of households have a family member who is at least a graduate.

·         Only 30% of rural households depend on cultivation as their main source of income. Whereas, 51.14% derive sustenance from manual casual labour (MCL). Fragmentation of landholdings has made it difficult for even farmers to support themselves, let alone those dependent on MCL. Therefore, getting people out of farms will spur mechanisation and consolidation of land holdings, leading to increased agricultural productivity in the long run.

·         In nearly 75 per cent of the rural households, the main earning family member makes less than Rs 5,000 per month (or Rs 60,000 annually). In just eight per cent of households does the main earning member makes more than Rs 10,000 per month.

·         56.25% of rural households hold no agricultural land. The numbers also point to the subsistence level of farming that rural India currently practices. Therefore, creation of gainful non-farm employment should receive top priority in policy making.

·         Thus, among the indicators, landlessness and a reliance on manual labour contributes the greatest to deprivation. In all, half of rural India is deprived on at least one of these indicators.

·         The findings of the census are similar to that of the Rangarajan committee, a technical expert group set up in 2012. The panel had found that the percentage of people below the poverty line in 2011-12 was 30.95 in rural areas and 26.4 in urban areas.

 Key Findings:

·      Total Households in the Country = 24.39 Crore

·      Total Rural Households = 17.91 Crore

·      Households Excluded = 7.05 Crore (39.49%)

·      Automatically Included=16.50 lakh (0.92 %)

·      Considered for Deprivation= 10.69 Crore

·      Not reporting Deprivation= 2.00 Crore

·     Household With Deprivations= 8.69 crore